Archive for November, 2012

Static keyword in C

Friday, November 30th, 2012


static keyword has multiple uses in C code and slightly different behavior in each case. For a beginner it might seem like a total anarchy. So, let’s get to the point and understand implications of using static in our code.


Monitoring Directory/File events in Linux

Friday, November 30th, 2012

Monitoring Directory/File events  is an essential  functionality for many types of programs. Applications can be implemented  to dynamically carry out various operations in response to Directory/ File events.


kernel __init calls

Thursday, November 29th, 2012


The Linux kernel uses a clever and well-optimized mechanism for calling initialization code in drivers and kernel services using __init calls . It’s clever because its functionality is largely abstracted from the driver developer, and it’s well-optimized because after initialization, memory containing the initialization code is released. This article explores how this mechanism works.


Learning to learn: How to get the best of our training courses?

Friday, November 23rd, 2012

Do you think that just by taking training course and following through with lectures, labs mechanically  would  help you achieve course objectives and get the best of it ?


Extern keyword C

Wednesday, November 21st, 2012

Most newbies are often not clear about the of why and when extern keyword should be used. In this article I will attempt to give your more clarity on extern keyword and its importance.


So much free information, so why a training course?

Monday, November 19th, 2012

Ever y information that you need is freely available on the Internet, there are dedicated sites, technical forums, blogs, articles, Q&A, technical groups and so on to bombard you with the needed information, so why do you need a paid training course, or do you?


Anouncement( New course): Embedded Linux platform developer

Friday, November 16th, 2012

Veda Solutions in its quest to address the rapidly growing demand for highly trained core Embedded Software Engineers has taken a step further by developing a core embedded engineering course on Linux platform. Through this programme we are sure to take our participants to the next level of embedded software development which has never been addressed by the software training community till now.

You can find the course details below. You can call us at 9885808505 for more information and admission details


Embedded Linux Platform Developer

Course description
Advanced training program on Embedded Linux platform development with comprehensive coverage on target board bring up, Embedded Linux porting, Linux kernel BSP and Embedded Linux Device Driver Development

Course Highlights

  • Detailed analysis of modern embedded hardware architectures  and board bring up strategies
  • In depth understanding of  open source boot loader “uboot”
  • Hands on sessions on uboot customization  for new targets
  • Hands on sessions on Embedded Linux porting strategies
  • Analysis and detailed walkthrough of Embedded Linux board support code
  • In depth coverage on embedded Linux driver stacks and driver implementations  (I2C,SPI,GPIO)
  • Analysis and walkthrough of Embedded Linux video and audio driver stacks
  • Hands on sessions on multi-media application porting

Who should attend
Developers looking to master or expecting assignments/projects in the following core areas:

  • Embedded Linux Porting
  • Linux BSP development
  • U-Boot Customization
  • Embedded Linux Driver Development
  • Android System Development


  • GNU C programmers looking to master Embedded Linux, BSP and Embedded Device Driver Development
  • Experienced developers looking for a refresher course on Linux BSP and Embedded Device Driver Development.

Course Prerequisites

  • Good programming skills using GNU C
  • Application programming experience on Linux platform
  • Linux kernel programming basicsOR


  • Participants who have undergone “Linux Kernel and Driver Developer” course from Veda Solutions


Course Agenda:

Part1: Embedded Hardware
1. Understanding Embedded Systems

  • Embedded systems landscape
  • Attributes of Embedded Systems
  • Trends in Embedded technology
  • Embedded Platform Architecture
  • Embedded Processor Architecture
  • Microcontroller, microprocessors and SOC


2. Understanding Embedded Boot sequence

  • Boot technology considerations
  • Role of Bootstrap Processor
  • Boot components
  • Hardware Power sequences
  • RESET vectors
  • CPU initialization
  • Device Initialization
  • Boot device selection


3. Understanding ARM Architecture

  • Introduction to ARM architecture
  • Processor modes
  • ARM Registers
  • ARM Endian Support
  • ARM Instruction Set
  • Addressing modes
  • The System Control Processor


4. Embedded Target boards (ARM Soc based)

  • Understanding Target board schematic
  • Interpreting Target board manuals/data sheets
  • Identifying key components on Target board
  • Identifying various Device interfaces
  • Understanding Memory maps


Part2:Platform BSP
1. Embedded Board Support packages

  • Introduction to BSP
  • BSP design considerations
  • Various stages in Board Support Code


2. Working with components of BSP

  • Introduction to BootROM
  • BootROM design
  • BootROM design considerations
  • BootROM code
  • BootROM executions trace
  • Memory organization
  • Introduction to FSBL
  • FSBL functionalities
  • FSBL design standards
  • Getting hands on with FSBL (case study)
  • Build & Running FSBL
  • FSBL Call Graph
  • Introduction to SSBL
  • Types of SSBL
  • SSBL as primary bootloader
3. Uboot

  • Introduction to U-Boot
  • Key Features
  • Supported Platforms & Processors
  • Supported Boot modes


4. U-Boot source walk-through

  • uboot source tree layout
  • Memory organization
  • Memory relocation
  • Stack setup
  • Important Misc’s


5. Uboot build and setup 

  • Build structure
  • Building U-Boot for emulator
  • Building U-Boot for physical target
  • Creating flash partitions
  • Environment variables
  • Commands
  • U-Boot call graph


6. Customizing Uboot for new targets

  • U-Boot source tree in detail
  • Porting/upgrading u-boot
  • Coding guidelines
  • Customizing configuration files
  • Target specific modifications
  • Customizing/adding drivers
  • Customizing/adding new commands
  • U-Boot scripts
  • Hosting Apps on U-Boot


Part3: Embedded Linux & Application Porting
1. Embedded Linux overview

  • Linux as an Embedded Operating system
  • Linux  and open source Ecosystem for Embedded Devices
  • Linux kernel facilities for Embedded Devices
  • Understanding Linux system Boot Process
  • Introduction to Linux system components


2. Cross-compiler tool-chains

  • Need for cross tool-chain
  • Different tool-chains’ build procedures
  • Using pre-build cross tool-chain
  • Building cross tool-chain using cross tooling
  • Using Scratch box


3. Building kernel Image

  • Kernel Source tree organization
  • Introduction to kernel Build system
  • Understanding Kconfig and Make scripts
  • Kernel configuration for target
  • Cross compiling kernel source
  • Linker scripts
  • Build analysis
  • kernel parameters


4. Upgrading/Porting kernel to specific target

  • Prerequisites
  • Generic procedure
  • Kconfig language and Makefile
  • Module by module porting


5. Linux File Systems for Embedded Storage

  • Need for flash file systems
  • Linux File system support for Flash memory
  • Understanding jffs2 file system
  • Enabling kernel support for jffs2
  • Understanding UBI file system
  • Enabling kernel support for UBIFS
  • Understanding Cramfs
  • Enabling kernel support for Cramfs
  • Understanding SquashFS
  • Kernel support for SquashFS
  • Understanding YAFFS2
  • Kernel support for YAFFS2


6. Root File system

  • Understanding Linux Init process
  • Need of root file system
  • Understanding Unix File system hierarchy
  • Choosing root file system Layout
  • startup scripts
  • choosing system binaries and utilities
  • Cross-compiling and hosting Apps
  • Populating device nodes
  • Need for log daemons
  • Setting up log daemons
  • Building fs image


7. Deploying & Testing Linux system on target

  • Flashing U-boot to target
  • Booting Linux kernel from DDR
  • Flashing kernel image to target
  • Deploying RFS through initrd(ramdisk)
  • Deploying RFS through initramfs
  • Deploying RFS through NFS
  • Flashing root file system to target
  • Kernel boot from NOR flash
  • Kernel boot from NAND flashes
  • kernel boot from SD/MMC
  • kernel boot from Serial flashes


8. Network services and utilities

  • nfs
  • Telnet
  • Ssh
  • Dhcp
  • Snmp
  • http


9. Graphical interface frameworks

  • Fltk
  • Nano-x
  • Gtk
  • WxEmbedded
  • Qt for Embedded


10. Porting multimedia Apps

  • Audio Apps
  • Video Apps
  • Direct media layer
  • DirectFB
  • Video for Linux
  • Digital video broadcasting
Part4: Embedded Linux BSP
1. Linux BSP basics

  • Linux BSP components
  • Platform Devices
  • Understanding timers
  • Understanding interrupts
  • Understanding clocks
  • Understanding power management
  • Understanding memory map
  • Understanding interrupts
  • Understanding GPIO


2. Hardware Clocks

  • Introduction to clocks
  • Clock types and significance
  • Linux clock management framework
  • using clock interfaces in drivers


3. Power Management

  • Introduction to power management
  • Device power management and significance
  • Linux power management framework
  • using power API’s in drivers


4. Device Tree (FDT)

  • Introduction to Device tree
  • Device Tree Script (dts)
  • Device Tree compiler(dtc)
  • Device Tree Blob (dtb)
  • Booting Linux with device tree
  • Device tree and drivers


Part5: Embedded Linux Device Drivers
1. Linux device driver model

  • Introduction to device driver model
  • Design objectives
  • hotplug drivers
  • sysfs filesystem
  • procfs filesystem
  • debugfs filesystem


2. Linux device drivers

  • Overview of Linux device drivers
  • Categories of Linux device drivers


3. Handling Platform devices

  • Linux platform driver stack
  • Platform devices Enumeration
  • hands on with platform drivers
4. RTC

  • Basic RTC operation
  • Linux RTC subsystem
  • Implementing RTC driver


5. Watchdog

  • Basic watchdog operation
  • Linux watchdog subsystem
  • Implementing watchdog driver


6. UART controller

  • UART introduction
  • Linux UART stack
  • Implementing UART driver


7. Console Devices

  • Introduction to console
  • Need for console dev
  • writing Console Driver


8. Handling i2c interface

  • Introduction to i2c
  • i2c protocol
  • Linux i2c driver stack
  • i2c adapter driver
  • i2c bus manager
  • i2c client drivers


9. Handling SPI interface

  • Introduction to SPI Bus
  • SPI protocols
  • Linux SPI subsystem
  • SPI drivers


10. Handling GPIO

  • Introduction to GPIO
  • Linux GPIO management
  • Accessing GPIO interfaces


11. Handling Input devices

  • Introduction to input devices
  • Linux Input subsystem
  • Implementing input drivers (Keypad, mouse, Touch screen)


12. USB

  • USB protocol introduction
  • Linux USB subsystem
  • Linux USB OTG subsystem
  • Implementing USB driver for Mass storage protocol


13. SD/MMC

  • SD/MMC protocol introduction
  • Linux SD/MMC subsystem
  • Implementing SD/MMC driver


14. NAND

  • Introduction to MTD devices
  • Linux MTD Subsystem
  • NAND device introduction
  • Implementing NAND driver


15. Ethernet

  • Network protocols introduction
  • Introduction  to ethernet
  • Implementing ethernet driver


16. Audio Devices

  • Basic audio operation
  • Audio codec’s introduction
  • Linux Audio Subsystem
  • Implementing  audio drivers


17. Display/LCD

  • Basic display operation
  • Linux Display Subsystem
  • Implementing display drivers


18. Frame buffer and Video Devices

  • Introduction to Linux Video Subsystem
  • Analysis of Frame Buffer Driver


Part6: Debugging Tool
1. User space tools

  • GDB, gdb server
  • Valgrind


2. Kernel space tools

  • Printk
  • Kernel OOPS
  • KDB
  • KGDB


3. Boot time measurement tools

  • Grabserial
  • Bootchart


Part7: Open Source Development
1. Open Source Contribution

  • importance/Benefits of open source contributions
  • Open Source project management Practices
  • Development tools required


2. Source control tools (GIT)

  • Overview of GIT
  • Useful git commands
  • Open source projects hosted under Git


3. using GIT

  • How to clone an existing git tree
  • How to create your own working branch in existing git tree
  • How to create patches against the reference tree
  • Review of few useful commands


4. Merging GIT trees

  • How to upgrade your source tree in sync with mainline tree version
  • How GIT tree merging works
  • How to merge the mainline tree changes into your internal tree
  • How to merge BSP into mainline


4. contributing patches

  • How to send your own patches to mainline GIT tree
  • Precautions, while sending patches to mainline
  • other important open source contribution tips


——————————- END ——————–

For further details please contact : 9885808505 or write to

Learning patterns:The Perfectionist

Friday, November 9th, 2012

The Perfectionist

This is the last installment in the series on learning patterns.


Learning patterns – part 5(The miner)

Friday, November 2nd, 2012

Our next in the series on Learning patterns. for previous parts look  here –part1,  part2,  part3,  part4.



Friday, November 2nd, 2012

Major updates to “Linux Driver and Embedded Developer”

we are happy to announce major updates to our flagship training course “Linux Driver and Embedded Developer”

1.       sessions on Android platform Development

2.       Fully Revised Device Drivers and Embedded Linux Modules

3.       Further readings (includes additional reading material for deeper understanding on select topics)

4.       Fully revised Course-ware

5.       Weekend hands on interactive lab exercise sessions  (Saturday, Sunday labs- keeping in mind the needs of working professionals)

6.       Fortnightly review tests with faculty assessment

7.       Hassle free audio video playback support for missed classes

We thank all participants for continued support and  important suggestions  and feedback. Please continue to send us suggestions and feedbacks. for more details visit